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激光-电弧复合焊接技术在造船上的应用进展

来源:激光制造商情

关键词:激光 电弧复合焊接

2017-02-06

 陈长军、张敏、王晓南、胡增荣、孙茜

苏州大学激光加工中心 江苏 苏州 215021

 

1 引言

 

1.1 复合焊的优点

激光具有高亮度、高方向性、高单色性、高相干性及特殊的空间分布特性等优点,可获得高达1011W/cm2的聚焦功率密度,其巨大的能量集中在非常小的范围内,能迅速将材料局部升温至极高的温度,并能以较高的冷却速度进行冷却,因此激光加工技术已成为一种无与伦比的材料加工方法[1]。激光材料加工技术在工业领域应用的广泛程度,已然成为衡量一个国家工业水平高低的重要标志。激光焊接技术与传统焊接技术相比,具有焊缝深宽比高、热影响区窄、焊接接头质量佳、生产效率高等突出优点,因此逐渐得到科研人员及企业的关注。常见的激光焊接技术包含单纯激光焊接、激光填丝焊接和激光-电弧复合焊接(Hybrid Laser Arc Welding)。由于激光和熔化极气体保护焊(Gas metal Arc Welding, GMAW)能加速焊接工艺,降低成本,并提高焊接质量。所以激光焊接和复合焊在汽车制造、航空航天领域中已经得到了广泛的应用。但在造船行业中应用还不是很普遍,尤其是在中国的造船上,还在大量的使用人力进行焊接,不仅污染环境、而且劳动强度大、危害比较大、精度和效率也无法保证。

激光复合焊结合了激光焊和MAG焊或其它气体保护焊两种技术的优势。复合焊主要的优点是:焊接穿透的深度深而且焊道窄,焊接速度快,热输入低,热影响区小,热变形小;焊缝质量高,外观佳,物理性能好,返工率低,焊缝底部控制好,可实现单面焊双面成形。并且确保了焊缝的金属结构与机械属性。

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